Lesson 2, Unit 11

Importance of accurate measuring and recording of intake and output (I&O)

Refer to Ch 15

Fluid ScalesIntake and Output-Click Here

Methods to measure and record fluid intake Refer to textbook pg 273

Variations from the usual amount of fluid intake

Methods to measure and record fluid output Refer to pages 268-270 in textbook

Measuring and recording fluid balance - intake and output

Assisting resident with elimination Refer to pages 281-286.

A bedside commode is a movable toilet that does not use running water. It looks like a chair with a toilet seat and has a bucket or container underneath. This container can be removed for cleaning after the commode is used. A commode can be used beside the bed if a resident cannot get to the bathroom. The commode may have wheels so that it can be rolled away when it is not needed. The wheels should be locked when in use, to prevent the chair from moving. Residents who can get out of bed but cannot walk to the bathroom may use a portable commode. See page 285 in textbook.

BedpanBedpan Refer to pages 281-282

There are several different kinds of bedpans and urinals available. Some are metal and others are hard plastic. There are bedpans for people who cannot raise their hips. This may include people with hip fractures or in body casts. Some urinals are made for men and others are made for women. Some are reusable and others are thrown away after use. The reusable ones are used by the same person, but need to be washed and disinfected (germ-free) after each use. This can be done using soap and water and then a liquid such as bleach to kill germs.   Follow your facility protocol.

Refer to pages 301-302 Constipation means that a person has three or fewer bowel movement in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass. At one time or another, almost everyone gets constipated. In most cases, it lasts a short time and is not serious.  However, it proper action is not taken worst case scenario is it can be deadly.  Constipation occurs when the feces move too slowly through the intestine. This can result from decreased fluid intake, poor diet, inactivity, medications, aging, disease, or ignoring the need to eliminate. Review chapter 17 in textbook.

If you have ever been constipated even a little bit, you know the discomfort this can cause. The more severe the case the more pain the resident is in. Please be sensitive during these times on their symptoms and report any and all findings to your nurse immediately.
  • Cartoon ManMeasures to relieve constipation
  • Care for resident who has been incontinent of urine or feces. Incontinence is the inability to control elimination.
    Residents who are incontinent need reassurance and understanding. Keep residents clean, dry and free from odor. Give good skin care. Urine irritates the skin. It should be washed off completely by bathing and good perineal care. 
    Skin care and incontinence Click Here

    Video - Urinary incontinence causes, symptoms. Click here